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Hybrid hazelnut production as an agricultural crop provides both a delicious new protein and oilseed crop as well as significant environmental benefits. Hazelnut production in the Upper Midwest will be grown in hedgerows, with the potential for a third crop, grasses and/or legumes in the alleys between the rows. This system prevents soil erosion, protects water quality and, because hazelnuts have deep fibrous roots, sequesters carbon in the soil. Their long life-span and bushy growth form also make them especially valuable in windbreaks, shelterbelts and living snow fences, where they provide habitat for shrubland bird species while adding economic value.